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Hematology

Hematology means blood science.  The name given to the branch of medicine related to blood and blood disorders. Blood can be divided into two groups as blood cells and blood fluid. The blood fluid contains nutrients, protein water, mineral salts and immune elements. Blood cells; erythrocytes (red blood cells), leukocytes (white blood cells) and platelets.

The role of erythrocytes is to carry gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide between hemoglobin which gives its red color to the blood, and tissues.

Leukocytes is a group of cells showing different images when examined under the microscope. Each of them undertakes separate roles in the fight against foreign bodies, including disease factors such as germs and viruses which enters the body.

The role of platelets is to protect the body against bleeding. While platelets float separately in blood fluid in normal conditions, they provide clot formation by adhering to each other in this area of bleeding and by taking other elements with coagulation role, such as fibrin in the liquid part of blood.

Which hematologic diseases diagnosis and treatment is interested in?

Erythrocytes (red blood cells)

  • Anemias
  • Hemoglobinopathies
  • Blood bank

Leukocytes (white blood cells)

  • Leukemias
  • Acute myeloid leukemia (AML)
  • Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)
  • Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)
  • Neutropenias
  • Myeloproliferative diseases
  • Chronic myeloid leukemia (KML)
  • Polistemiva vera (PV)
  • Myelofibrosis (MF)
  • Essential thrombocytosis (ET)
  • Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)
  • Lymphoma and lymphoproliferative diseases
  • Hodgkin's disease
  • Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL)
  • Multiple Myeloma (MM)

Platelets and coagulation

  • Bleeding and coagulation disorders
  • Hemophilias
  • Von Willebrand disease
  • Repeated thrombosis
  • Thrombocytopenia and thrombocytosis

What are the general application complaints?

  • Anemia; weakness, fatigue, getting tired quickly, palpitations, shortness of breath, chest pain.
  • Thrombocytopenia and factor deficiencies; nose bleeding, gingiva bleeding, small red rashes on the skin, bruising, long periods of menstruation.
  • Low leukocyte; fever, frequent recurrent infections.
  • Lymphomas; growth in glands, fever, weight loss, night sweats.
  • Acute leukemias; fever, bleedings, growth in glands.
  • Chronic leukemias; incidentally detected high leukocyte, spleen growth, growth in glands.
  • Multiple myeloma; unexplained diffuse bone and low back pain.

For diagnosis of hematological diseases, many different tests may be required. Measurement of blood cells and hemoglobin (complete blood count), analysis of hemoglobin subtypes by electrophoresis, examination of blood under microscope (peripheral smear), examination of bone marrow (bone marrow aspiration and biopsy), iron, vitamin B12 and folic examination of acid levels, examination of blood coagulation, tests related to the functions and life of blood cells, examination of proteins produced by immune system cells, analysis of chromosomes and other building blocks of blood cells or bone marrow cells that produce them, and radiological examinations are the most required tests. All hematological diseases can be diagnosed and treated in our hospital.